|The Brave Monkey-King Part II|
|Thai Buddhist Culture and Tradition
The religion concerns with spiritual development; the subject matters of the religion dealing with the universal virtue, happiness, morality, righteousness, decent, skillfulness, goodness, scrupulousness, justice, truthfulness and wholesomeness. In Buddhism, you’ll find the aforesaid ingredients and the highest spiritual development in which they were recorded in the doctrine of the Buddha as follows:
Abstention from all evil, the doing of good deeds, and purification of the mind, is the admonition of the Enlightened Ones.
Enduring patience is the highest austerity. “ Nibbana is supreme.” Say the Buddhas. He is not a true monk who harms another, nor a true renunciate who oppresses others.
Not despising, not harming, restraint according to the code of monastic discipline, moderation in food, dwelling in solitude, devotion in meditation—these are the teachings of the Buddhas.
The Buddhism plays the vital role in Thais lives, 95 percentages of the populations are Buddhists and the less belong to Muslims, Christianity, Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism and others.
The Buddha’s teachings or the Dhamma can be compared to the huge herbally medicinal tree in which consists of its various parts: roots, skin or surface or bark, core or essence of the tree, branch, leaf and fruit of the tree. This tree will be beneficial for many patients who have been sick from various kinds of diseases: some from physical, some from verbal and others from emotional sickness. Therefore different parts of the tree are needed for the sickness; some wants only the leaves of the tree; some may want the shadow; some may want the branch; some may want pieces of the skin or the barks; some may want the core or the essence; and some may want the fruit of the tree. For the leaves of the tree can be seen in rites and rituals which can be temporarily cure emotional sickness through which when the monks have been reciting some incantations; the Suttas; the branches may be represented moral precepts, codes of conducts , the rules and regulations, the moral norms, the law of righteousness, ethical rules, virtue and justice; the pieces of outer surface or bark can be designed as the meditative practice which purifies the mind ; and the essence or the core of the tree, the insight or the wisdom. All the activities in a monastery can be seen in various ways; for instances, when coming to the monastery for requesting the 5 or 8 precepts from the monks and after that they return to their residences ; when seeking for the spiritual guidance, requesting to perform the rites and rituals at their residences, giving donations for the monks or the monastery,receiving the education both temporal and spiritual and the novice, nun, or monk ordination. The monk acts as the spiritual guidance who teaches goodness to the followers.
Before conversing to Buddhism, Thais had been worshiping the Idolaters and ancestors until the reigned of the Great Emperor Ashoka when he had sent the Buddhist missionaries to disseminate Buddhism in outside countries of India. Among them he had sent two the perfected One: the Venerable Sona and Uttara to the Golden Triangle Regions in Southeast Asian Countries: Thailand and Burma. Besides those, he had also sent his son and daughter: Venerable Mahindra and Venerable Sanghamitra, both of them were the Accomplished One, to Sri Lanka. Then, Buddhism has become the corner stone of Thais’ culture and tradition.
The temperature of a body or the world can be reduced by drops of water; in the same way the temperature of modern society can be lessened by drops of goodness. "Goodness" can be conceived as the worthy and valuable things giving the world its pleasure. The characteristic marks of goodness are worthy of preservation and protection. In the modern age, the power of money can produce wonders of advanced technology; but on the other hand neglects "moral invention". Many people are beholden to the value of other things besides goodness; money is the important standard by which to estimate the worth of a man. Social problems meanwhile raise at an alarming rate. All conflicts can only be eliminated when people realize and recognize the value of goodness. As the ancient Thai proverb runs "People must preserve goodness as salt preserves saltiness."
Speaking of the need for the establishment of peace in modern society, we here give the example of the lighting of candles. Suppose a candle is lit somewhere and later on people experience insufficient light; many candles come to be lit subsequently, cause that place becomes thereby illuminated. Similarly, if all persons in a society are morally good, the society will be entirely peaceful.
The Buddhist viewpoint is well illustrated by the following comparison of a life based on morality with a life utterly lacking in it. "Though one should live a hundred years, immoral and uncontrolled, yet better, indeed,is a single day's life of one who is moral and meditative."
The goodness, virtue, morality, or the likes are the essential things in which every one seeks for, obtains from the people from every walk of life, socail status, gender, . As the Mighty God named ‘Suningkumara’, the young or tender face Mighty God has been exalted the virtue, concentration and wisdom as follows:
Among the people who were born in this human World: the King caste is the utmost one; but whosoever is endowed with the moral virtue, concentration and wisdom is the most superior among all.
Even the great western philosopher like Aristotle who was the teacher of Alexander the great highly praised the moral virtue and concentration in his teachings on the moral virtue in these statements: “Happiness lies in virtuous activity, and perfect happiness lies in the best activity, which is contemplative.” The virtue is not confined only to the human being but also to the animal who protects the dangers for his subjects. In the story of MahaKapi Jataka, the births’stories of the Buddha-would-be, when he took rebirth as the monkey-king; for the sake of protecting the dangers of his subjects, the monkey-king was sacrificed his life. When the Buddha-would-be was born as the monkey-king and Ven. Ananda, his attendant, was born as King Brahmadatta
On the bank of river was situated of the virgin forests in which were plenty of various types big and small trees; birds and beasts. Among them there lived a big troop of monkeys to whom was ruled by the huge and noble monkey- king . The story had been happening in the kingdom of King Brahmadatta in the ancient India; when the monkey king took his subjects to feed on mangoes which are plenty in the wild forest. While eating them, he thought that these fruits would bring harm for his subjects in the future, if they fell on the ground or into the river and someone might find them. So he told his subjects picking, throwing and hiding all of them some save places, but it happened one of the fruits covering by the ants’ nets, so it was left untouched. Then when the mongo was ripening and falling down into the stream of the river leading toward the kingdom of King Brahmadatta. One of his men found it but he did not know that whether it is edible or inedible, so he went to seek the answer from the king’s forester who informed him that it was a mango’ fruit and edible. So he offered to the king to taste it. When the king cut opened the mango; the fragrance of sweetness of the mango is spreading everywhere in the chamber of king’s palace, when he is eating the mango: the splendid tatse of the mango is penetrating and pervading every part of his body, and he also offers to his chief consort, when she is eating the same experience happening to the king. So the king ordered his men to prepare the vehicles for him and his retinues accompanying with: his elephant, the elephant for his chief consort, for his consorts; the horses for his children. His men equipped with bows and arrows then the King and his retinues departed to the forest looking for the mangoes trees. After arriving there they found many of them they enjoyed eating them and taking residences under the trees. At night the monkey king and his subjects came to the mangoes trees and ate them; from the noises of their movements waking the king and his men, the kings ordered his men shooting the monkeys, many of them had been killed . The monkeys were stricken with fear for the death. The monkey King tried to help his subjects by climbing to the tree top and finding the solution to the problems in which he has seen the gap from one tree to another in which is beyond the reach of arrows. So he went to uproot the bamboo shoot, then climbed up to the utmost top of the tree, bound a bamboo-shot firmly around his thighs, jumped to another tree, reached a bough by his hands grasping the tree making himself as a bridge and let his subjects walking across on his back. In this manner, they have been in safe place. But he lost his strength and fell on the ground. The King seeing the incidents of the noble acts of the monkey king felt pity on him and summoned his men to help the monkey king. The monkey king with the broken back was lying on the ground surrounding with the king and his men gave the moral instruction to them that; it is the duty of the leader to offer the well-beings and happiness for their members and their subjects.
The moral lessen from the story depicted the ideal ruler who has great responsibilities for the welfares of the subjects, in this story showed the duties of the ruler toward his subjects, sometimes for the sakes of well beings of his subjects he must sacrifice his life.
Thailand’s kings from the ancient to the current times have showed the courageous in leading Thailand freeing from the dangers: Thailand is only independent country in Southeast Asia country that never colonized by any country because of the wisdom and the courageous of the Thai Kings and their queens. In the ancient times, Thai Kings led their men to fight against the enemies in the battle fields: the ideal Kings Phramahachakrapad and Queen Sri Suriyothai who was killed in the battle field when flighting with Phra Chao Phae in the war between Siam and Burma in ; King Neresuan who led Thai fought and freed themselves from the grip of Burmese in the war with Burengnong, King of Pegu
King Taksin of Krung Dhonburee dynasty and King PhraBuddhayodfa of Rattanakosin dynasty; King Rama V with the help of his wisdom led Thailand free from the colonisation of the the foreign countries like England and France.
The current King Rama IX, Bhumiphol Adulyadej of Ratnakosin reign and his royal families play the vital and contributive roles in leading Thailand to the development of the country. There are many projects which issuing from the ideas of his majesty King
The virtue of the Kings of Thailand from the ancient to the current times came from the instigations of the monks. In the Sukhothai’s periods around 1275-1317 A.D, King Ramkhamhaeng the great King who played the contributive role in constituting the Theravadin Buddhism as the state religion.
we find that in his reign the prosperity and bountifulness until it reached the high apex under the reign of King Ramkhamhaeng’s grand son:King Li Thai who has been devout in the tasks of studying and rewriting the 30 volumes of the Buddhist teachings on the Tribhumikatha, the Buddhist cosmology and the three planes existences of the heavenly worlds, of the Form- Mighty Gods-worlds and of the Formless Mighty Gods-Worlds. These works have been the elaborate expression the theory of Kammas and Rebirths in which signify and lay emphasis on the psycho-physical moral implications of Buddhism. These works were demonstated the competent knowledge of King Li-Thai as they have been the first Buddhist treatise by Thai and also become the didactic literary works. The influential roles from the works have been seen in mural paintings, arts, scultures and architectures in many temples almost ever corner of Thailand.
They adopted and adapted the noble ideal king from the Buddha’s teaching from the story of the Monkey-King. For the rulers of the nation like the ancient kings who were endowed with the noble qualities of righteous kings as follows.
1. Dana Donation, rendering services or giving aids, in this connection we will find there are ample examples in which show the generosity of the king for the benefit of the welfare of his subjects and for the World.
2. Sila – The moral, virtue, goodness, wholesomeness, skillful, the code of conduct, the discipline and the precepts
To observe the Sila there are four reasons for the consideration:
(A) Being moral to the concept of the reason for action reasons for action,
(B) Being moral to the concept of rationality,
(C) Being moral to the concept of human virtues and
(D) Being moral to the theory of good for man.
The meritorious and wholesome performances are result in the happiness and prosperity for the doers: in other words, the good doer reaps the good resultant that are happiness and prosperity. To perform the good deeds liken when keeping the money in the bank will beget the interest thereby: if you put a lot of money in the bank, then you will get much interest in return; if you draw out the money from the bank, you will get less interest or you stop putting money in the bank, then you will get the interest from the remaining money in which you still have in the bank; or when you don’t have the money in the bank and you borrow it from the bank, consequently we have to pay the interest for the borrowed money. In this regard the goodness produces two kinds of benefits: the first benefit makes the doer to be good person and second give the happiness and prosperity for the doer. Actually the good doer begets the happiness and prosperity as the rewards of their good deeds, but sometimes the good doers have not begotten the good resultant because they did not perform good deeds continuously: it is due to with many reasons from heedleeness, forgetfulness and other reasons. From the heedlessness: some may give the reason in not doing the goodness procastinately that I am still young; I am busy with my routine work; I am very tired from my work;I am very busy with my famalies’ lives ; the colleagues want me to join some drinks with them and the like.
3. Paricaga Generosity
As witnessed in Thailand, the king has always been ready and willing to carry on his work of administration, for ‘the welfare of the subjects. The Gift of Dhamma is the foremost, as when the king tastes very delicious food and with the thoughts of loving kindness and compassion, he realizes that this food must not be eaten alone should be shared to the others so that the others should have opportunity to taste the delicious food. In the same manner, after the King tastes the tastes of Dharma which is making the mind calm, serene, peace, joy, blissful and tranquil so he wants to promulgate to his subjects.
LOVING KINDNESS AND COMPASSION LIKEN TO THE MOON
Loving kindness and compassion are originating from the good, wholesome and skillful and generating the thought how, when, what, why, to help other liken the shining moon light on the full moon night which is helpful and meaningful for the human beings and animal as well: with the help of full moon, a person can see the thing, find the way and enjoy the light of full moon, the light of full moon is not intensified like the light of the sun. From the moon light people can work without any exhaustiveness for whom need the moon light to work: the agricultures who are harvesting the corps and others ; when walking at night the moon light will help them seeing the dangerous or harmful things: the coming car; dangerous animals like poison snake or animals or even the harmful person. When the loving kindness and compassion originating in the people’ minds likening the light of the full moon night will chase away the darkness of enmity and shade the light of loving kindness and compassion in the mind of persons lead them to think in the contributive, helpful, beneficial, moral, wholesome, skilful ways: the good example for these, like when the calamities was happenings when the Tsunami striking on the Indian ocean countries with the loving-kindness the people tried their best to help others to free them from the dangers,sometimes, without knowing those persons; giving services: by sending some help; sacrifice various types of theirs actions, speeches etc, ; with compassionate thoughts: people watching the news with the thoughts of grieves, sad, lamentation and others to see the natural destructions it just as happening with them. And the same
It is brought forth from the compassionate mind there come the contributively proliferative kinds of helps from various sources: from the Unesco the international funding to the projects of constructing the housing projects; from the scientific groups come ; the administrations from the head of international countries contributing: the following statements will be relevant to subject matters:
As witnessed in the news, the death tolls and countless injuries of more than 150,000 residents and tourists from over 40 countries,. Never seen before in our lifetime have we witnessed such a great loss of lives, the many injures and sudden destruction of the infrastructures. The calamities caused by the earthquake causing the Tsunami in the Indian Ocean are great lessons for the countries situated along the coast lines. Because of this event geologists and scientists of these countries surrounding the Indian Ocean are expected to now establish early warning systems to prevent similar losses in the future.
The United Nations, the Red Cross and other humanitarian agencies have never before witnessed the great generosity and compassion in rendering relief in forms of money, medical aid and services to the disaster victims from around the globe.
Many religious authorities from Hinduism, Judaism, Islam and Christianity have given their thoughts and opinions on the cause of this disaster. As we, Buddhists also, would like to give our views on this matter. But before we give our opinions on this crisis, we would like to express our sympathies, compassions and concerns for those affected by the Tsunami.
The great lost of the near and dear persons, mothers, fathers, children, friends, whole families are unbearable not to just those who found themselves in those areas but to us who have watches it unfold in our newspapers and televisions. The physical, psychological and societal effects, the suffering for those caught in the disaster is enormous.
As the Buddha told us that Birth is suffering, decay of our bodies is suffering, old age is suffering, disease is suffering, death is suffering, separation from loved one is suffering, and associating with people we dislike is suffering. Sorrow, lamentation, despair and grief which are derived from the birth, decay of body, old age, disease, death, separation from the beloved things, association with unsatisfactory things, are all sufferings. The bottom line is that attachment to the five groups of aggregates of body, of feelings, of perceptions, of mental conditions and of consciousness, is suffering.
From the Buddhist tradition we can say that the causes of disasters such as the Tsunami are the combined operative forces called the “five Niyâmas” in which can explain the causes of why disasters like the Tsunami happen. We have already mentioned the contributive role in helping the victims which is one of the Niyamas operating in the world. I will elaborately touch the subject matters when relevantly relate to the subjects
4. Ajava – To do the right thing: The term can be applied in various ways but the best ways is to sum up the teachings of the Buddha about the universal measurement of the actions done by the people in the world: one is done the thing which is brought the suffer for himself;--- the thing which is brought the suffer to other; ---brought the suffers for himself and the others as well; ---the thing which is brought the benefit for oneself and ---the thing which is brought the benefits for oneself and others as well.
5. Maddava- mildness, gentleness, softness: The term maddava is used in the senses of comfortable, convenient and happy deeds both to oneself and others both body, speech and mind
6. Tapa- Mental devotion which plays the vital role of ascetic practise; the observance of the undergoing for the ascetic monks in the forest monasteries. To elaborately explain the details of the Tapa will be using many pages but to sum up the Tapa—the ascetic practise of Buddhist tradition is different from the Hindu tradition—not self mortification but the tapa by following the middle path or the Noble Eight-Fold Path of the Buddha.
7. Akodha- Non-hatred
Ill-will is one of the three kilesa, the great passions. The evil representations caused by hatred are clear and obviously visible to all but because of ignorance or delusion man can not notice its outcomes consciously.
The global problems that are taking place in our day-to-day experiences are closely associated with hatred and all its properties: irritation, displease, malevolence, grude, ill-will, envy, jealousy and the likes as one of their seed-cause. It is to realise its bad effect, its cause, its cessation and path leading to its cessation. Then all the concerning problems will be abolished.
The Exalted One, with his great vitues of the Compassion, of the purification and of wisdom has demonstrated in the Dhammapada in which we can broadly categorized as follows:
I. Its bad effect,
II. Its cause,
III. Its cessation and
IV. The path leading to its cessation.
I. ITS BAD EFFECT
In the two stanzas in the Dhammapada the Buddha has showned the bad effect as follows: "Weeds are the bane of fields and hatred is the bane of mankind ... " and “The hatred of those who harbor such ill feelings as "He refined me, assaulted me, vanquished me and robbed me, is never appeased."
The above mentioned quotations lead us to aware of the bad effects of hatred and its properties that man produce. They are destructive not only to their creators but to others too. They exercise their impacts on three levels.
1. Psychological attitude,
2. Psysical attitude and
3. Social attitude.
TOWARD PSYCHOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW
We are told that "presence of the objects we hate, is suffering." This standpoint leads us to realize the fact that hatred is one of the factors of suffering. When our mind is associated with hatred, which is supposed to be an immoral root of consciousness, we suffer. In this connection the Buddha offered two sets of similes to illustrate the detrimental effect of the hindrances which do not allow the mind to get happiness. In the first simile, hatred is compared with a disease and second it is said to hold a candle as a bowl of boiling water. "just as the keen eyed man would not be able to see his reflection in such kind of water, so one whose mind is obsessed by ill-will does not know and see that it is his own good, the good of others, or the good of both."
When a man keeps hatred with him all the time, even at the time of sleep, he won't sleep soundly. He will keep on thinking that "He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, he robbed me." I must wreak vengeance on him. It is in this way hatred won't be pacified by hatred.
TOWARDS PSYSICAL ATTITUDE
As already indicated that a man has mind and matter for its combination and they are interrelated with each other; these, then, when the man's mind is rooted in hatred, he turns his actions to beat, tear, harass, chop off, break, pierce, strike, hurl missiles, shed blood, seize weapons and so on; furthermore, the man gets angry he is making his eyes red, is perspiring profusely, is knitting the eyebrows, clapping the hands, gnashing the teeth, biting the lips, throbbing of the cheeks, hitting the palm with the fist, etc. By nature, hatred is very furious: When the man hates his eyes are red and fearful and very huge; whatever he undertakes, he is naturally very furious, even his ordinary movement, utterance of words, etc. are excessively fierce. And these are the leading causes of various kinds of diseases such as 'peptic ulcer', 'ulcerative colitis', 'heart attacks', 'tremor of fingers', 'over sweating on the forehead, palms', 'disorder of bladder and bowel habits', 'change in the menstruation in women' and also to a preponderance of 'phlegm over the other humors in the body'.
Stress and anxiety are known to be the leading causes of 'peptic ulcer'. Studies have been made by the medical fraternity and had been proved scientifically that such behavior patterns lead to an increase in the formation of digestive juice and leads to the development of 'peptic ulcer'. Ulcerative colitis, a disease characterized by the appearance of multiple ulcers in the large intestine is also led with emotional stress. The role of a behavior of such type which is characterized by 'competitiveness impatience & hostility' is a risk factor in the development of arteriosclerosis --- a condition where the blood vessels of the body is hardening causes myocardial infraction or more commonly known as 'heart attack'. Such have been proved by the famous Framingham study in the U.S.A. (Ref. No.24, p. 545 & No. 28, p. 607).
Anxiety Neurosis : A disease entity caused by anxiety leading to tremors in the hands, over sweating on the forehead, palms; disorders of bladder & bowel habits; change dietary patterns & also change in the Menstruation in women.
A hateful temperament is said to be due to a pre-dominance of the elements of cohesion and oscillation and also to a preponderance of phlegm over the other humors in the body. (Vism. III, ( 80-1).
TOWARDS SOCIAL ATTITUDE
Hatred lays its bad effects not only towards psychological and physical attitudes but also towards the social attitude. Men live in inter-relation with each others. Such relationships give rise to the effects which are either good or bad. Men of hateful natures lay waste to themselves and to the others as well. When the man hates, is prey to hatred and his mind is obsessed by hatred, he kills living things. Even those persons who are intimate to him are to be credited with the hatred through the activities of violence, fighting and so on. In this respect we have a legend which gives a clear picture of the bane of ill-will. We are told that
Tissa, an Elder, has resorted to a jeweler for alms for twelve years. But it was due to with one day jeweler's pet heron swallowed a jewel before the eyes of the monk. The jeweler accused him of having taken it, and when the latter denied his guilt, the jeweler beat him on the head until the blood flew. The heron drank the blood of the monk, and the jeweler in anger kicked out of the way and killed him. Then the monk told the jeweler that the jewel was swallowed by the heron. The jeweler ripped open the corpse of the heron, found the jewel, and asked the monk to pardon him for his hasty judgment.(BL. Vol.29, pp. 284-6.).
Man, under the influence of hatred, breaks unity of communities from individuals to groups.
In this connection we have a story which is preserved in the BL. about the quarrelsome monks of Kosamb. The story goes that
at Kosambi, in Ghosita Monastery, resided two monks, each with a retinue of five hundred monks. Of the two monks, one was a student of the Discipline, the other a preacher of the Law. A preacher of the Law was reproached by a student of the Discipline for leaving water in the bath room. On being informed that the offense was unintentional, the student of the Discipline assured the preacher of the Law that he was guiltless. Immediately afterwards, however, he told his own pupils that the preacher of the Law had committed sin and was without conscience in the matter. Thereupon ensued a quarrel in which monks, nuns and the unconverted persons took part. The Buddha was informed of the circumstances of the quarrel, and He sent word to the monks to patch up their differences, which they refused to do. The Buddha then went to them in person and admonished them. Still they refused to be reconciled. Disheartened by His failure to restore harmony, He left them, and finally He went to spend the rainy season at Parileyyaka forest attended by an elephant. (ibid. Vol. 28, pp. 175-8.).
THE CAUSE OF HATRED
The Buddha in the Dhammapada has pointed out the cause of hatred in the following three stanzas.
He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me,
he robbed me, in those who harbor such thoughts,
hatred is not appeased. V. 141.
Whatever (harm) a foe may do to a foe, or a hater
to the hated, an ill-directed mind can do one far greater (harm) V. 142.
Speak not harshly to anyone. Those thus addressed will retort.
Painful indeed is vindictive speech. Blow in exchange may
bruise you.V. 143.
The above quotations, carefully considered, enable us to recognize the real causes that breed hatred and the subjective and objective causes that give rise to hatred. Although the external causes are there arisen, a man gets angry because he does not wisely keeps restraint over the true nature of external objects. For instances, in verses 3, 133 and 201 the abuse, beat, defeated, robbery, harsh speech and victory are the representations of an objective causes of hatred. But the ill-feelings and wrongly directed mind, in verses 3 and 42 are the subjective causes. A man gets angry when these factors are associated with each others.
THE CESSATION OF HATRED
The overcoming of hatred is claimed to be the greatest wealth because it leads us to a peace of mind which is contradictory to hatred. The cessation of hatred can be divided into two categories: the temporary and eternal cessations.
THE TEMPORARY CESSATION
Hatred or ill-will is one of the five hindrances of concentration which prevent one's mind to get one-pointedness. At the Jhanic state (absorption) the five hindrances among which hatred is included are suppressed. When the hatred has been overcome or suppressed at this level the mind will be peace, calm, serene, tranquil and one-pointed: as the Buddha compared the ill-will or hatred to a disease; when hatred is suppressed by concentration, it is like a man afflicted with disease, suffering pain, extremely ill, having no appetite and losing physical strength has recovered his normal health, his appetite returned and he gained physical strength. Then it occurred in him thus :
Formerly I was afflicted with disease, suffering pain,
extremely ill, losing appetite and physical strength.
Now I have recovered from that disease. My appetite
has returned and I have regained physical strength.
Thereby, that man becomes pleased and delighted.
The other temporary cessation of hatred is 'patient' which is supposed to be great weapon to overcome the objective and subjective causes of hatred. There are ample examples of the verses in the Dhammapada whereas the Blessed One laid the great benefit of patient as follows :
Though one may conquer a thousand times a thousand
men in battle, yet he indeed is the noblest victor who conquers himself (V. 145).
Enduring patience is the highest austerity ... (V.146). And these stanzas are more relevant.
He who without resentment endures abuse, beating and punishment, whose power, real might, is patience - him do I - call a holy man (V.147).
Blessed indeed are we who live among those who hate, hating no one; amidthose who hate, let us dwell without hatred (V.148).
THE ETERNAL CESSATION OF HATRED
Like the disease when being eradicated from the sick makes him to be happy, in the same manner when the hatred being free from his mind makes him to be happy. The hatred can be compared to the termites which gnaw the house and destroy it completely , like the hatred gnaws one’s mind, and finally will destroy it and body. To change from hatred to love is like to change the dirty water to the clean one. But to eradicate the hatred is not easy task. The hatred is one of the unwholesome roots of consciousness which is lying in our bottom of our mind like the lethal poisonous snake is lying quiety at the bottom of the pond without distubance.
During the state of temporary cessation of hatred wherein the practitioner suppressed hatred in the Jhanic state which is supposed to be like the act that suppresses the leaves (branches) of plants or grasses with their roots remaining intact and this is not complete so long as their roots are not wiped out There is a possibility of their growing again with time. In the same way the anger of a man will be occurred, because the causes of hatred are not eradicated. Therefore, the meditator must practise again strenuously in order to eradicate the hatred: one of five lower fetters (orambhagiya samyojana) that tie a man with the rotation of existence. It is acknowledged that in order to eradicate hatred a man must become a 'Never Returner(Anagami Puggala)' or a 'Perfected One (Arahanta Puggala).'
THE PATH LEADING TO THE CESSATION OF HATRED
"Hatreds never cease through hatred in this world; through love alone they cease. This is an eternal law.
Buddhism is a non-violence religion. The Buddha appeared in this world with the light of Great Compassion and saw all the creatures with pity and compassion. They were trembling on the fire of the three fold passions, i.e. greed, hatred and delusion. To extinguish these He preached the Law of Universal Love which is one of 'the Four-fold Sublime Method (Brahma Vihara).
BRAHMAVIHARA , divine states, also called appamana and appamanna, infinitudes, is a name for the four practices of mental development, namely, benevolence (metta), compassion (karuna), sympathetic joy (mudita) and poise (upekkha), classical formula given in the Pali Nikaya in explanation of the four divine states runs as follows: "Herein a monk lets his mind pervade one quarter of the world with thoughts of benevolence, compassion, sympathetic joy and poise... and so the second, the third and the fourth quarter; and thus the whole world, above, below, around and every where does he continue to pervade with heart free from anger and ill-will.
The Exalted One disclosed the eleven advantages enjoyed by person who has successfully developed loving kindness in his mind. What are the eleven ?
(1) One gets sound sleep,
(2) One awakens in comfort,
(3) One doesn't have bad dreams,
(4) One is dear to human beings,
(5) One is dear to non-human beings,
(6) Deities guard one,
(7) Fire, Poison and Weapons do not effect one,
(8) One's mind is easily concentrated,
(9) The expression of his face is serene,
(10) One is unconfused and
(11) If one penetrated no higher, one will be reborn in the world of Brahma.
THE PATH LEADING TO THE CESSATION OF HATRED BY WAY OF CULTIVATING PATIENCE.
In the previous discussion we have already explained the quotations from VV. 103, 184 and 399 in order to show the highest quality of patience, in stopping the extension of the hatred.
Patience or forbearance helps us to evaluate or judge what is right or wrong. For instance, in all our relationships, sometimes, controversies have taken place and in such situation normally we incline to confirm our opinion and on the other hand we try to defend or prove the opponent's opinion to be wrong. If others criticize us or expose our faults, we become angry. However, if we were patient enough we would prolong the time for investigating the fact. And finally we would discover our faults. In this regard we have the teachings of Hluangpoh Sanong to support as he said that :
When a person criticizes you and exposes your faults
and makes amends, that your enemy is your greatest
friend because he is the person who gives you the test
you need for your inner strength, your tolerance, your
respect for others ... Instead of feeling angry with or
develop hatred towards such a person, one should
respect such a person, one should respect him and
be grateful to him.
The statement of Hloangpoh Sanong proves that he has applied the teaching of the Blessed One for its utility in the relevant circumstances from following stanza.
Should one find a man who points out fault and who reproves, let him follow such a wise and sagacious person as one would guide to hidden treasure. It is always better, and never worse to cultivate such an association. (Dh.V. 76).
CAUSES LEADING TO WRONG VIEWS
According to Buddhist tradition it is said that: "Of all objects which proceed from a cause..." In the similar way the Ditthi does not arise without any reason. It arises dependent on the other cause, that is in one's association with the other. When a man, worships, pays respect, honors, gives admiration, and embraces the others ideals such relationships affect on the mental influence on the other.
It is very difficult for people to turn away from accustomed modes of thought, action and conduct. One has to turn away from the delusion of things seemingly dear and congenial and recognize the reality within. The two conditions that are leading to wrong views are of an external cause: what we hear and see and the internal: how we process this information..
8. Avihimsa – non-violence, As its fundamental principles, non-injury to all living beings and piety and compassion towards them.
9. Khanti - self-control
10. Avirodhana – sense of knowing to do the right thing
I hope the readers may enjoy reading the brave monkey-king Part I. Nothing new in this part II but only the additional elaboration of the light on the extension of the story adding the moral lesson and other some little bit touch on the Buddhist tradition in Thai culture.
|Shaktey [DT08796] [ วันพฤหัสบดี ที่ 2 เมษายน 2552 เวลา 14:11 น. ]|